Exception Nouns

There are seven general exceptions in the 2nd declension.  Instead of ending in -is, seven nouns end in -s.

Essentially, the nominative singular is all that is different.  According to my grammar book, the genitive singular is also -s instead of -a with a consonant palatization change, but every time I go by the book when I translate into Latvian, my husband corrects me.

So, apparently, it depends on who you talk to and what they think sounds good.  I don’t think it’s wrong either way and you’ll be understood regardless of which you choose.

The seven nouns are:

  • akmens: stone
  • asmens: blade
  • ūdens: water
  • rudens: fall, autumn
  • zibens: lightning
  • mēness: moon
  • suns: dog

Then there’s sals (salt).  It’s technically still a 6th declension noun but it’s moving into the 2nd declension where it’ll be an exception…. and no one really knows which one it’s actually in.

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