Irregular Verbs

There are only three truly irregular verbs in Latvian.  Unlike many other languages, even though these verbs are irregular, they still follow rules.  How convenient!

The three verbs are: būt, iet and dot.

What’s irregular is the stem that the endings are built upon; all three irregular verbs have completely different stems for present, past and future that may or may not be somewhat related to the infinitive.  Just memorize those stems and you’ll be fine.

Look at the words closely and you’ll soon see the familiar endings and the stem that each verb uses (for the most part) in the tense. All three are considered to be short conjugation verbs, since they are all one syllable long.

As with all Latvian verbs, two things remain unchanged: 1) the 3rd person singular and plural are identical; and, 2) the 2nd person future plural can end in either -iet or -it.

būt -- to be
             | tagadne | pagātne | nākotne
             |   vsk.  |   vsk.  |   vsk.  
1.   es      |   esmu  |  biju   |  būšu
2.   tu      |   esi   |  biji   |  būsi
3. viņš/viņa |   ir    |  bija   |  būs

             |   dsk.  |   dsk.  |   dsk.  
1.   mēs     |   esam  |  bijām  |  būsim
2.   jūs     |   esat  |  bijāt  |  būsiet/būsit
3. viņi/viņas|   ir    |  bija   |  būs
iet -- to go
             | tagadne | pagātne | nākotne
             |   vsk.  |   vsk.  |   vsk.  
1.   es      |   eju   |   gāju  |   iešu
2.   tu      |   ej    |   gāji  |   iesi
3. viņš/viņa |   iet   |   gāja  |   ies

             |   dsk.  |   dsk.  |   dsk.  
1.   mēs     |   ejam  |  gājām  |   iesim
2.   jūs     |   ejat  |  gājāt  |   iesiet/iesit
3. viņi/viņas|   iet   |   gāja  |   ies
dot -- to give
             | tagadne | pagātne | nākotne
             |   vsk.  |   vsk.  |   vsk.  
1.   es      |   dodu  |   devu  |   došu
2.   tu      |   dod   |   devi  |   dosi
3. viņš/viņa |   dod   |   deva  |   dos

             |   dsk.  |   dsk.  |   dsk.  
1.   mēs     |   dodam |   devām |   dosim
2.   jūs     |   dodat |   devāt |   dosiet/dosit
3. viņi/viņas|   dod   |   deva  |   dos

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