Long Conjugation

The long conjugation consists of those verbs whose 1st person present and past forms are identical.

As with the mixed conjugation, the infinitive form of verbs in this conjugation contains more than one syllable.

Some books will refer to it was the 2nd conjugation, but this seems to be largely dependent on the author.

Below are the present (tagadne), simple past (pagātne) and future (nākotne) forms for domāt:

domāt -- to think
             | tagadne | pagātne | nākotne
             |   vsk.  |   vsk.  |   vsk.  
1.   es      |  domāju |  domāju |  domāšu
2.   tu      |  domā   |  domāji |  domāsi
3. viņš/viņa |  domā   |  domāja |  domās

             |   dsk.  |   dsk.  |   dsk.  
1.   mēs     | domājam | domājām |  domāsim
2.   jūs     | domājat | domājāt |  domāsiet/domāsit
3. viņi/viņas| domā    | domāja  |  domās

The reflexive form has its own rules about adding endings.

Present/Tagadne:

  1. Replace the 1st person singular ending of -u with -os.
  2. Add the reflexive endings to the normal verbal endings for the 2nd and 3rd person forms.
  3. Insert a -j- when necessary to indicate that the vowels should not be paired.

Simple Past/Pagātne and Future/Nākotne:

  1. Replace the 1st and 2nd person singular and 3rd person regular endings with reflexive endings.
  2. Add the reflexive ending to the normal ending for 1st and 2nd person plural.

See how this works in the following example:

rotāties -- to play
             | tagadne  | pagātne  | nākotne
             |   vsk.   |   vsk.   |   vsk.  
1.   es      | rotājos  | rotājos  | rotāšos
2.   tu      | rotājies | rotājies | rotāsies
3. viņš/viņa | rotājās  | rotājās  | rotāsies

             |   dsk.     |   dsk.     |   dsk.  
1.   mēs     | rotājamies | rotājāmies | rotāsimies
2.   jūs     | rotājaties | rotājāties | rotāsieties/rotāsities
3. viņi/viņas| rotājās    | rotājās    | rotāsies

There are more tenses, of course. I will add them later on, but these are the most essential to know.

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